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    第178期: 保育豬日糧中鈉、氯的來源與水平對生長性能的影響

    2019-3-5 16:48| 發布者: 畜牧編輯| 查看: 1033| 評論: 0|原作者: 29625248



    2019. J. Anim. Sci. 97(2):745-755
    保育豬日糧中鈉、氯的來源與水平對生長性能的影響

    Dwight J Shawk, Mike D Tokach, Robert D Goodband, Steve S Dritz, Jason C Woodworth, Joel M DeRouchey, Annie B Lerner, Fangzhou Wu, Carine M Vier, Madison M Moniz, Kayla N Nemechek

          本研究開展3個試驗研究7-12kg豬日糧中鈉、氯的來源與水平對生長性能的影響。在所有試驗中,仔豬斷奶后7-8d飼喂同樣的基礎日糧(0.33%鈉,0.77%氯),然后隨機分至各處理組。

          試驗一,360頭不同性別的,仔豬進行14天的試驗,每個處理15個重復,每個圈6頭豬。試驗處理包括:一個10%乳清粉+鹽日糧(0.37%鈉,0.75%氯);三個7.2%乳糖的日糧,分別添加0.35%鹽(0.18%鈉和0.47%氯)、0.78%鹽(0.35%鈉和0.72%氯),或者添加1.15%小蘇打和0.4%氯化鉀(0.35%鈉和0.45%氯)。0.78%鹽+乳糖組豬只日增重顯著高于0.35%鹽+乳糖組,其它處理日增重在這兩組之間。

          試驗二,使用360頭去勢公豬,試驗期14天,每個處理12個重復,每圈5頭豬。試驗處理包括兩個添加鹽的處理(分別提供0.13%鈉、0.35%氯或0.57%鈉和0.68%氯),另外兩個日糧鈉和氯由氯化鉀和小蘇打提供,分別為0.13%鈉和0.35%氯、0.57%鈉和0.5%氯,還有一個日糧添加小蘇打和氯化鈣(0.35%鈉和0.5%氯)。無論鈉的來源,豬日增重和采食量隨著鈉水平從0.13%到0.35%而增加(二次線性,P<0.05),未觀察到其它作用效果。氯化鈉和小蘇打處理之間沒有顯著性,相同鈉和氯濃度但是不同來源之間也沒有顯著性。

          試驗三,使用3300頭仔豬進行21天試驗,每個處理10個重復,每個重復5頭豬。對照組日糧中添加有鹽,提供0.33%鈉和0.55%氯,其它五個處理中鈉含量為0.33%,通過添加氯化鉀提供0.09%、0.21、0.32、0.45、0.55%氯。隨著氯含量從0.09%提高至0.32%,豬的日增重和肉料比顯著提高(二次線性,P<0.035)。對照組和0.55%氯組日增重相似。對于日增重和采食量來說,折線模型的結果發現最適氯水平為0.23%。對于肉料比來說,二次多項式模型發現氯的最適添加量為0.38%。

          總之,7-12kg豬日糧中添加最少0.35%鈉和0.38%氯可以獲得更好的日增重和肉料比,并且本試驗中使用的不同來源鈉和氯之間沒有差異。

    Effects of sodium and chloride source and concentration on nursery pig growth performance

    Dwight J Shawk, Mike D Tokach, Robert D Goodband, Steve S Dritz, Jason C Woodworth, Joel M DeRouchey, Annie B Lerner, Fangzhou Wu, Carine M Vier, Madison M Moniz, Kayla N Nemechek

    Three studies were conducted to determine the effects of source and concentration of Na and Cl on pig growth performance from 7 to 12 kg. In all three experiments, pigs were fed a common diet (0.33% Na and 0.77% Cl) for 7 or 8 d after weaning then randomly assigned to dietary treatments. In Exp. 1, 360 mixed-sex pigs were used in a 14-d study with 15 replications per treatment and six pigs per pen. Treatments included a 10% dried whey diet with 0.60% added salt (0.37% Na and 0.75% Cl); or three diets with 7.2% crystalline lactose with either: 0.35% added salt (0.18% Na and 0.47%Cl); 0.78% added salt (0.35% Na and 0.72% Cl); or 1.15% NaHCO3 and 0.40% KCl (0.35% Na and 0.45% Cl). Pigs fed the 0.78% added salt-lactose diet had greater(P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the 0.35% added salt-lactose diet, with others intermediate. In Exp. 2, 360 barrows were used in a 14-d study with 12 replications per treatment and five pigs per pen. Treatments included two added salt diets (providing 0.13% Na and 0.35% Cl or 0.35% Na and 0.68% Cl), three diets with Na and Cl provided by KCl and NaHCO3 (0.13%, 0.35%, or 0.57% Na and 0.50% Cl), or a diet with NaHCO3 and CaCl2 (0.35% Na and 0.50% Cl). Regardless of Na source, ADG and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as dietary Na increased from 0.13% to 0.35%, with no further benefits observed thereafter. There was no evidence for differences among pigs fed NaCl or NaHCO3 nor evidence for differences among pigs fed the different Na and Cl sources at similar concentrations. In Exp. 3, 300 pigs were used in a 21-d trial with 10 replications per treatment and five pigs per pen. Treatments included a control diet with added salt to provide 0.33% Na and 0.55% Cl or five diets with 0.33 % Na and added KCl to provide 0.09, 0.21, 0.32, 0.45, or 0.55% Cl. ADG and G:F increased (quadratic, P < 0.035) as Cl increased from 0.09% to 0.32%. Pigs fed the control diet (added salt) and the 0.55% Cl diet had similar ADG. For ADG and ADFI, the broken line linear model indicated a breakpoint of 0.23% Cl. For G:F, the quadratic polynomial model suggested the maximum at 0.38% Cl. Inconclusion, 7 to 12 kg pigs fed diets that contained at least 0.35% Na and0.38% Cl had greater ADG and G:F compared to pigs fed diets with lower concentrations and minimal effects were observed among the sources of Na or Cl used in these studies.


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